Less than a year after being on the verge of furloughing about 70% of employees to plug a funding shortfall, the U.S. agency that grants citizenship, green cards and temporary visas wants to improve service without a detailed plan to pay for it, including granting waivers for those who can't afford to pay fees, according to a proposal obtained by The Associated Press.
The Homeland Security Department sent its 14-page plan to enhance procedures for becoming a naturalized citizen to the White House for approval on April 21, It involves U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, which is part of Homeland Security and has been operating entirely on fees, without funding from Congress.
The plan describes short- and long-term changes that reflect "a realistic assessment of our aspirations and limitations," including more video instead of in-person interviews with applicants, authorizing employees to administer citizenship oaths instead of having to rely on federal judges, and promoting online filing to reduce processing times.
Homeland Security says it can all be done without the approval of Congress, where consensus on immigration has proven elusive for years.
Taken together, the changes mark a complete break from the Trump administration, when the agency focused on combatting fraud and adjusted to shrinking immigration benefits, such as ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program to shield young people from deportation.
The plan also seeks to give potential U.S. citizens the benefit of the doubt. For instance, it specifies that an immigrant who mistakenly registers to vote in U.S. elections before becoming a citizen won't be punished. Doing so now can lead to deportation or criminal charges, likely ending a person's chance for citizenship.
The issue has been in the spotlight amid a recent surge in automatic voter registration and former President Donald Trump's repeated unsubstantiated claims that millions of people voted illegally in 2016. Last year, Illinois' automatic voter registration program mistakenly registered hundreds of people who said they weren't U.S. citizens. At least one voted.
The document that aims to improve the citizenship process is designed to "encourage full participation in our civic life and democracy" and to deliver services effectively and efficiently.
It doesn't provide cost estimates for any of the proposed changes, though some measures appear designed to save money as well as achieve efficiencies. It also acknowledges success depends on long-term financial stability, which includes asking Congress for money.
Under the plan, the agency would continue subsidizing the costs of becoming a citizen to make sure the process is available to as many people as possible. Guidelines on fee waivers would be consistent and transparent, it said.
The administration "recognizes that the cost of fees can be a barrier to certain individuals filing for naturalization and is committed to providing affordable naturalizations," the document reads. "This will mean that other fee-paying applicants and petitioners will continue to subsidize this policy decision to ensure full cost recovery."
The White House and Homeland Security Department did not immediately respond to requests for comment.
Fiscal challenges came to a head last summer when the agency threatened more than 13,000 furloughs to tackle a projected $1.26 billion shortfall. But a few tense months later, it said it didn't need the money after all and would end the year with a surplus. The agency's then-acting director, Joseph Edlow, said application fees rebounded more than expected as offices reopened from coronavirus shutdowns and contracts were reviewed for cost savings.
The anticipated shortfall first surfaced in November 2019, when the agency proposed major fee increases — well before COVID-19 threatened finances.
The budget whiplash raised doubts about how the agency's finances deteriorated so rapidly then suddenly recovered. Ur Jaddou, who was nominated by President Joe Biden in April to lead the agency, was among those with questions.
Jaddou, who served as the agency's chief counsel under President Barack Obama, said in October that the agency needed a financial audit. She questioned some changes under the Trump administration, including justification for a major expansion of an anti-fraud unit and a requirement, since abandoned by Biden, to reject applications that left any spaces blank.
"It really is a bunch of bureaucratic red tape," she said when discussing the agency's financial woes.
Fees were set to increase by an average of 20% last October but a federal judge blocked them days before they were to take effect. The fee to become a naturalized citizen was set to jump to $1,170 from $640. Fee waivers were to be largely eliminated for people who could not afford to apply.
Other Trump-era fee changes that were stopped included a first-ever charge to apply for asylum of $50. Asylum-seekers would also have to pay $550 if they sought work authorization and $30 for collecting biometrics.
The wait to process a citizenship application grew to more than a year by the end of Trump's presidency from less than eight months four years earlier.