Rio Carnival’s Overlooked, All-important Rite: The Count (Photos)

February 23, 2023

RIO DE JANEIRO — Rio de Janeiro couldn’t resume regular life after the Carnival festivities came to a close until “the count” of scores from the parade competition was complete and a victor proclaimed.

The Carnival parade is billed as the world’s biggest party, yet scarcely anyone outside Brazil realizes that the flashy floats and extravagant dancers are more than spectacle. It has complex, constantly changing regulations and dozens of judges. In recent years, the samba school league has adopted changes to limit subjectivity, but skepticism about scoring remains — not least because of its checkered past.

And the hopes of entire working-class communities ride on the outcome. On Wednesday, they flocked to their respective schools to watch the televised results. A win affirms their diligent work was executed to perfection, bestowing honor and prestige.

“It’s the pleasure of doing the parade correctly and the satisfaction of taking the title home,” Maria da Conceição da Silva, 59, said Monday night before parading. She swears she’ll keep coming back “until God takes me, to parade up there.”

A performer from the Mangueira samba school parades during Carnival celebrations at the Sambadrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Monday, Feb. 20, 2023. (AP Photo/Bruna Prado)
Judges from the Independent League of Samba Schools in Rio de Janeiro, watch and evaluate samba schools parading for Carnival through the Sambadrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2023. (AP Photo/Bruna Prado)

The esoteric regulations dictate schools be scored on nine categories — among them costumes, drumming, song, harmony, plot and evolution — that together quantify the months of design, stitching, sculpting, welding and rehearsal that go into production. Judges with proven knowledge in each category undergo training, then are distributed along the 700-meter (2,300-foot) parade route to watch as each school’s several thousand paraders pass.

Rio’s samba schools began competing in the 1930s, and were corralled into the Sambadrome parade grounds in the mid-1980s. Their 70-minute displays can cost 10 million reais (almost $2 million), and the school that scores lowest is relegated to the lower league. Returning to the elite echelon can take years.

The top six finishers get percentages of box office revenue. But only the champion school goes down in history, and no one remembers the runner-up, said Jorge Perlingeiro, the president of the top league.

For over three decades, Perlingeiro has been the voice of Carnival, announcing judges’ scores one by one. Each bellow of “10!” — the top score — with his heavy Rio accent launched the schools’ fanatics into ecstasy Wednesday. Some lower scores elicited frustrated groans. More than half of Rio’s televisions were tuned in, according to Ibope, a company that monitors ratings.

Performers from the Beija Flor samba school parade on a float during Carnival celebrations at the Sambadrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tuesday, Feb.21, 2023. (AP Photo/Silvia Izquierdo)

The ceremony lasted about 90 minutes, with no less than 432 scores read aloud for 12 schools. The winning school, Imperatriz Leopoldinense, achieved 269.8 — two-tenths of a point shy of perfect. The title ends the school’s 22-year drought and cements its Carnival director’s star reputation. At the Sambadrome, the school’s drum leader crumpled and cried when the win was announced while a packed crowd at the school jumped for joy.

The large number of judges — 36 — is necessary to assess performance throughout the parade grounds and prevents a single bad score from torpedoing a school, according to Fábio Fabato, who writes and researches Carnival and Brazilian popular culture. It also helps curb corruption, he said, because it’s harder to buy off many judges.

In 1974, samba school Mocidade lost the title because one costume judge handed down an inexplicably low score of 4, Fabato said. In 1986, Brazilian soccer legend Socrátes was selected to judge drums, but had zero expertise, so he rated schools based solely on crowd reaction. Samba schools were furious. One school’s president said Socrátes was too drunk to judge and demanded that his scores be annulled.

An performer from the Viradouro samba school parades on a float during Carnival celebrations at the Sambadrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Tuesday, Feb. 21, 2023. (AP Photo/Bruna Prado)

“He (Socrátes) skipped down the stairs to the parade ground, stripped off his top and started dancing along in a pair of tight white shorts. Officials objected and he was reluctantly coaxed back to the judging station,” according to his biography, “Doctor Socrates.”

The count two years later sparked a vicious fight between rival schools and a 16-year-old girl was shot in the stomach, according to an O Globo newspaper report at the time.

David Butter, a Brazilian journalist who wrote a book on Carnival, remembers as a child watching the count with his father, who enjoyed it even more than the parade.

“We would get the newspaper with the empty scorecard to fill as the count went forward. We were all excited about the scores, the disagreements,” Butter said. “The count became a spectacle in itself, just like an opera. It is an exclusively Brazilian entertainment product.”

Other competitions have struggled with subjective scoring. Olympic figure skating had been rated from 1 to 6 until a judging scandal at the games in Salt Lake City — known as “Skate Gate” — prompted adoption of an elaborate system involving a technical panel. More recently, an investigation found multiple boxing matches were fixed at the 2016 Olympic games in Rio.

That same year, Rio police probed alleged fraud in Carnival judging. Greater technical rigor and professionalism were meant to head off disputes and provide transparency. Judges must justify any less-than-perfect score with a handwritten explanation.

Members of the Mangueira samba school celebrate during the vote count that defines the champion samba school of this year’s carnival, at the Sambodromo in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,Wednesday, Feb. 22, 2023. (AP Photo/Bruna Prado)

One judge evaluating costumes last year docked one-tenth of a point from a school because “a considerable quantity of paraders’ hats were slipping or fallen,” and she noted another school had promised to deliver “a diversity of green tones,” though only lime green prevailed. A harmony judge noted “occasional loss of internal homogeneity” and that “the neglect or weakening of some voices emptied the song of its sonic mass.”

On a scorecard last year, one judge noted how hard it has become to find errors when so few are committed, so just one-tenth of a point can clinch a victory. This year’s runner-up finished one-tenth behind.

If a gap appears between sections, the school can lose points. In this year’s parade, the lighthouse atop Unidos da Tijuca’s float was knocked severely askew, which cost them.

Starting last year, judges’ justifications are posted online within 48 hours. And cameras inside judges’ booths record what they can see, so schools can review footage and compare to the judges’ notes for inconsistencies. If any are found, schools can petition for a judge’s removal.

In interviews with two dozen paraders on Monday night, about half said they think judges’ determinations still reflect some undue influence. But most acknowledged scoring has improved with each passing year.

Members of Imperatriz Leopoldinense samba school celebrate after receiving the top trophy for the best samba school parade during Carnival celebrations at the Sambadrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Wednesday, Feb. 22, 2023. (AP Photo/Bruna Prado)

“They are trying to organize, so the competition happens only on the avenue, but there’s a lot still happening behind the scenes. Every samba dancer knows that,” Carol Tavares, 40, said Monday before parading with Unidos da Tijuca. “It’s on the path toward changing.”

Perlingeiro noted an ineffable quality also factors into the judging.

“The category that doesn’t exist, but exists in everyone’s mind, is emotion. It happens when you see the crowd cheering, waving. The judge sees that and, in a certain way, is captivated, too,” he said. “That has an influence.”

Members of rival schools at the Sambadrome clapped appreciatively after Perlingeiro announced the winner. The president of Mangueira, Rio’s most popular school and a fan favorite, finished fifth on Wednesday, told the AP she was happy with the judges’ recognition of her school’s hard work. Asked if their scores were fair, the president, Guanayra Firmino, demurred.

“With their justifications, I’ll do my analysis if it was fair or not. I can’t say that yet,” said Firmino.



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