BEIJING — As a new U.S. president takes office, he faces a determined Chinese leadership that could be further emboldened by America's troubles at home.
The disarray in America, from the rampant COVID-19 pandemic to the Jan. 6 riot at the Capitol, gives China's ruling Communist Party a boost as it pursues its long-running quest for national "rejuvenation" — a bid to return the country to what it sees as its rightful place as a major nation.
For Joe Biden, sworn in Wednesday as the 46th president, that could make one of his major foreign policy challenges even more difficult as he tries to manage an increasingly contentious relationship between the world's rising power and its established one.
The stakes are high for both countries and the rest of the world. A misstep could spark an accidental conflict in the Western Pacific, where China's growing naval presence is bumping up against America's. The trade war under President Donald Trump hurt workers and farmers in both countries, though some in Vietnam and elsewhere benefited as companies moved production outside China. On global issues such as climate, it is difficult to make progress if the world's two largest economies aren't talking.
The Chinese government expressed hope Thursday that Biden would return to dialogue and cooperation after the divisiveness under Trump.
"It is normal for China and the United States to have some differences," Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hua Chunying said. "Countries with different social systems, cultural backgrounds and ideologies should and can coexist … and work together to achieve peace and stability and development in the world."
But Kurt Tong, a former U.S. diplomat in Asia, sees a stalemate in the coming few years in which China keeps doing what it has been doing and the U.S. is not happy about it.
"I think it's going to be a tough patch, it's just going to be more disagreements than agreements and not a lot of breakthroughs," said Tong, now a partner with The Asia Group consultancy in Washington, D.C.
A more confident China may push back harder on issues such as technology, territory and human rights. Analysts draw parallels to the 2008 global financial crisis, from which China emerged relatively unscathed. The country's foreign policy has grown increasingly assertive since then, from staking out territory in disputed waters in the South China Sea to its more recent use of Twitter to hit back at critics. China's relative success in controlling the pandemic could fuel that trend.
The U.S. has also shifted, with wide support among both Republicans and Democrats for treating China as a competitor, and embracing the need for a tougher approach to China, if not always agreeing with how Trump carried it out. Biden needs to be wary of opening himself up to attacks that he is soft on China if he rolls back import tariffs and other steps taken by his predecessor.
His pressing need to prioritize domestic challenges could give China breathing room to push forward its agenda, whether it be technological advancement or territorial issues from Taiwan to its border with India.
Biden has pointed to potential areas of cooperation, from climate change to curbing North Korea's nuclear weapons development, but even in those areas, the two countries don't always agree.
The pandemic, first viewed as a potential threat to President Xi Jinping's leadership as it spiraled out of control in the city of Wuhan in early 2020, has been transformed into a story of hardship followed by triumph.
The Communist Party has sought to use the pandemic to justify its continued control of the one-party, authoritarian state it has led for more than 70 years, while rounding up citizen-journalists and others to quash any criticism of its handling of the outbreak.
That effort has been aided by the failure of many other nations to stop the spread of COVID-19. Biden takes over a country where deaths continue to mount and virus-related restrictions keep it in recession. China is battling small outbreaks, but life has largely returned to normal and economic growth is accelerating.
"It would have been more difficult for them to push that narrative around the world if the United States had not done such a poor job," said Bonnie Glaser, director of the China Power Project at the Center for Strategic & International Studies in Washington, D.C. "That's a theme that runs through many issues, that China's just able to point to the United States and democracy in general as not delivering good governance."
It's impossible to gauge support for the Communist Party in a country where many would be unwilling to criticize it publicly, for fear of repercussions. But Niu Jun, an international relations professor at Peking University, said that objectively, public trust should rise given China's faster recovery from the outbreak.
"To ordinary people, the logic is very simple," he said, predicting the pandemic would spark public thinking and discussion about which system of governance is more effective.
"The party's policies are good, our policies are not like the ones in foreign countries, ours are good," said Liu Shixiu, strolling with her daughter in Wuhan, the city that bore the brunt of the pandemic in China. "We listen to the party."
It is unclear whether the Communist Party foresees exporting its way of governance as an alternative to the democratic model. For now, Chinese officials note that countries choose different systems and stress the need for others to respect those differences.
"As China becomes more and more confident, maybe they'll try to shape the internal operations or ways of thinking of other countries," Tong said. "But to me, it feels more like they don't want anyone to be able to say that China is bad and get away with it."
The leadership wants China to be seen and treated as an equal and has shown a willingness to use its growing economic and military might to try to get its way.