Israeli Scholars Say Turkish Genocides Wiped Out Armenians, Greeks, Christians

The Thirty-Year Genocide: Turkey’s Destruction of Its Christian Minorities, 1894–1924 by Benny Morris and Dror Ze’evi. Photo: Amazon

Putting the lie to repeated claims by Turkey it didn’t engage in genocides, two Israeli academics said they have documented the slaughter of Armenians, Greeks and Christians over a 30-year period from 1894-1924, including under the direction of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of the modern Turkish Republic.

Writing in The Wall Street Journal, about claims in their book The 30-Year Genocide: Turkey’s Destruction of its Christian Minories, Professors in Middle Eastern Studies at Ben Gurion University of the Negev Benny Morris Dror Ze’evi detailed the systematic slaughter by Turkish leaders that eliminated some 90 percent of the Christians.

Turkey has kept saying that their lives weren’t taken by planned massacres but in the fog of war and the chaos of the time that also took many Muslim lives but the scholars said the killings were designed to eliminate all Christians and nearly succeeded.

They wrote in a column in the paper that during the period they studied that the number of Christians in Asia Minor fell from 3-4 million to just tens of thousands, from 20 percent of the area’s population to under 2 percent.

“Turkey’s Armenian, Greek and Assyrian (or Syriac) communities disappeared as a result of a staggered campaign of genocide beginning in 1894, perpetrated against them by their Muslim neighbors. By 1924, the Christian communities of Turkey and its adjacent territories had been destroyed,” they wrote, contradicting Turkey’s claims.

It was no mere opinion piece but the result, they said, of 10 years of researching archives from Turkey, the United States, British and French archives as well as some Greek materials and the papers of the German and Austro-Hungarian foreign ministries.

They said they were thus able to prove “a strikingly consistent pattern of ethno-religious atrocity over three decades, perpetrated by the Turkish government, army, police and populace,” against Christians, which Turkey has denied, particularly the Armenian genocide which the scholars wrote was a “concentrated slaughter” from 1915-16.

They said it was driven by religion and aided by other groups of Muslims, including Kurds, Circassians, Chechens and Arabs with the purpose of a Holocaust-like Final Solution to kill every Christian in the region, murdering some two millions.

It was, they added, organized by three successive governments, those of the Ottoman Sultan Abdulhamid II, the Young Turks and, finally, Atatürk. Besides the mass murders, some 1.5-2 million Christians were expelled, mostly to Greece.

Ze’evi, reached by The National Herald earlier, recounted how arduous the task was to find the material by poring over voluminous records for years in an effort to get at the truth, which they said verified Christian claims of the genocides and planned mass extermination efforts.

RAPES, SEXUAL VIOLENCE

They said the killings conformed to the United Nations definition of what constitutes genocide but Turkey has fiercely resisted any such depiction as the scholars said the killings were accompanied by mass rapes of tens of thousands of Christian women and their forced conversion to Islam, as well as those of children whose parents were killed.

“So pervasive was the sexual violence and kidnapping that many of today’s Turks, whether they know it or not, can trace at least part of their ancestry to these abducted Christians,” they added in an ironic twist of how trying to wipe out Christians in a way perpetuated their blood in Turks for generations.

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has continued the line there were no genocides and in April wrote to the Armenian Patriarch of Turkey to “offer my sincere condolences” to the grandchildren of “the Ottoman Armenians who lost their lives under (the) harsh conditions of the First World War” and to urge him “to avoid helping those who seek to create hatred, grudge and hostility by distorting our common history.”

The tragedy began during 1894-96, when Sultan Abdulhamid II authorized massacres of against the Ottoman Empire’s Armenian minority, fearing that they threatened the integrity of his realm, the academics said.

Some 200,000 people, almost all Armenians, were killed by Turkish soldiers, villagers, townspeople, officials and police as well as Kurdish tribesmen, they said the documents showed, finding a grisly pattern.

“At each site, alongside the pillage and murder, many thousands of Armenian women were raped or abducted. Some would eventually be killed; many more were forced into Muslim households and converted, serving for the rest of their lives as wives, concubines or servants,” they said, history that Turkey wants covered up.

The evidence came from eyewitnesses as well, they said, including in January 1896, in the southern Turkish town of Palu, where an American missionary reported that the Turks “continue to carry off girls and women, keeping them a few days and then returning them with their lives blasted.”

THROUGH MISSIONARY EYES

In August that year, another missionary in Mardin wrote: “We saw girls not a few who returned from the hands of their captors weeping bitterly, shrieking and crying: ‘We are defiled! No one will take us in marriage.’”

The record of horror was also backed by even by Germany, which was allied with Turkey in World War I. On July 7, 1915, the German Ambassador in Constantinople, Baron Hans von Wangenheim, reported Armenians being deported from the city of Erzurum were being ambushed by Kurdish bands, with “the men and children…butchered and the women carried away.”

On July 27, a German engineer on the Baghdad railway reported that a Turkish sergeant “abducted 18 women and girls and sold them to Arabs and Kurds for 2-3 Mejidiehs,” a coin that was a fifth of a Turkish pound, the historians said they had also found.

There were slave markets during the war in the Syrian cities of Aleppo and Damascus and several Anatolian towns, selling off Armenian girls for trivial amounts, destined for sexual slavery or domestic service or marriage to Muslims,  their lives otherwise valueless.

in which Armenian girls who had been corralled by Turkish troops were sold for a pittance.

War between Turkey and Greece from 1919-22 saw Ataturk conduct a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Turkish Greek communities along the Black Sea and the Aegean coast.

“Claiming that Ottoman Greeks were assisting the invading Greek army, the Turks took the opportunity to murder hundreds of thousands of them, as well as expelling more than a million Ottoman Greeks to Greece,” said Morris and Ze’evi.

It was especially seen in the destruction and burning of Smyrna, with navies from the Allied powers victorious in WWII offshore doing nothing to stop it, watching the fires and murders from onboard.

The American Consul General in Smyrna, George Horton, reported that one of the “outstanding features of the Smyrna horror” was the “wholesale violation of women and girls,” in mass rapes to go along with pillage and slaughter.

In 1924, the British Foreign Office said it estimated that “not less than 80,000 Christians, half of them Armenians, and probably more” were still being detained in Turkish houses, “many of them in slavery.”

The research was said to have found that that tens of thousands of Christian women suffered rape, abduction and forced conve  rsion during the 30 year reign of terror, along with the mass murder and expulsion of their husbands, sons and fathers.

Drawing a parallel to Germany recognizing the atrocities of the Third Reich during World War II to Turkey’s denial of the genocides and slaughters, the historians said there’s also been no remorse. “Every Turkish government since 1924—together with most of the Turkish people—has continued to deny the painful history we have uncovered,” they said.

20 Comments

  1. Turkey hasn’t repented for their past sins , in fact they are in denial or just flat out lie about it. But they too will pay soon for the massacres of so many innocent people.

    1. fyi- be wary of some of the posters here that claim to be Greek. Some governments are funding false flag to go foreign websites to sway public opinion.. Some crazies also do it freelance (I”m not a conspiracy theorist With the rise of the Internet this behavior has been well documented)

      Giannis below comes to mind. Here he criticizes academics that point out the Greek genocide at the hands of Turks. He attacks philhellene Menendez. In other threads he obsessively claims Russians own Crimea. He claims to support Greece but keeps taking anti-Greek positions. So wither he’s a real dumb Greek or a non-Greek pretending to be Greek.

  2. Pure propaganda article, written by the most devious and untrustworthy “scholars”. Look at the Palestinians. I won’t ever accept any make belief genocides.

    1. I am reading this book now. It is very well
      Researched and is only the latest work
      On the genocide perpetrated by turkey
      Against its Christian populations.

    2. One has nothing to do with the other. The massacres in Asia Minor educated hitler on how to do it and get away with it. As far as Palestinians go, 2 separate states were set up after the founding of Israel and the Arabs kept rejecting it and attacking Israel , only to lose more land every time they attacked. Now 70 years later they want 2 states. But how can they be trusted ?

    3. Seretis and One Opinion are right. Benny Morris and Dror Ze’evi are two prominent scholars specializing in Middle East History. In this their latest book, they confirm and add to the overwhelming evidence of Turkish-perpetrated genocides in the early decades of the last century. Even Turkish scholars acknowledge these horrific crimes, though they have to do so from outside Turkey, as with Taner Akçam who now teaches at the University of Minnesota. Turkey only shames itself by denying evident truths and refusing to face honestly its past.

    4. Perhaps you should have met with my Grandmother who was orphaned as her family was burned to death or my Grandfather who watched the systematic sluaghter of unarmed Armenians as he fled into hiding and was forced to assume a Muslim identity until he could reach Greece which was a haven for the Armenians. Odd, or tellingly, your comment about the Palestinians does not need to be a denial of the Armenian Genocide.

    5. John B…you are absolutely correct, it is pure propaganda theater by TNH and the Israeli government to promote an adversarial relationship between Greece and Turkey, in order to support the interests of Benjamin Nentanyahue and his fascist war criminals who are nothing more than the Donald Trump, Mike Pompeo , and John Bolton of America !

      Those interests…are to punish an insubordinate Turkey. for no longer cooperating and being a partner with Saudi Arabia,and Israel in the genocide of Orthodox Christians and Shia Muslim in Syria by supporting Sunini Muslim brigades called ISIS , Al Queda, Al Nustra Front just to overthrow another non compliant leader of a country to the Religious doctrines of Saudi Arabia, and to the oppression of the human rights of the Palestinian people ..and despicably held in what the world calls an “Open Air Prison”…of Israel!

      TNH an alleged Greek American newspaper , but mouth piece of the Greek Secret society of masons..does not tell we Greeks and Armenians…something we don’t know…like why Israel is committing war crimes in continuing to support radical jihadist terrorist in Syria by blatantly carrying out 120 bombing missions in Syria against the forces of Syria fighting these terrorist… and why these bombing runs include war crimes bombing of civilian airports of Damascus but provide space to have an Israeli scholar to tell about Turkish genocide.which I told in our annual Greek School plays!

      To continue…

    6. Of course.,John B.,you are skeptical of the the genocide narratives of Turkey.m.when our government and media.have falsely used it to fabricate Regime change wars and destruction of the independent countries of the world to take them over and have been the foundation of justifying the perpetual wars that has killed 3 1/2 million people in the MIddle East and Europe by the United States and Nato!

      Who can forget …Hillary Clinton telling the world ..that she must act to remove the leader of Libya, because he was committing civilian genocide in libya, which has been proven a lie…and a leader who was merely defending his country against Saudi Arabia, UAE Sunni muslim jihadist!

      Hillary confesses to being the the real perpetrator of genocide of Libya,..when she publicly screamed upon watching her army cut the throat of the leader of Libya …”WE CAME , WE SAW, HE DIED! NO HILLARY, you left the entire population dead!

      This false script and narratives by the leaders of America has been used so often to invade and bomb countries of the world one can understand why John B, may not accept the genocide story in Germany, Turkey,Cyprus, Gaza strip, Rowanda. Cambodia, etc etc

      Why should we believe Arab and Palestinian scholars, who call the taking over the property, homes, land , money and rights of Palestinians to create the Jewish state of Israel an act of of ethnic and religious cleansing of the Palestinians, like what the Turks did in Cyprus!

  3. Send a copy to Bibi and Jared; maybe then Israel will officially recognize the genocide without using that recognition as a bargaining tool against Erdogan

  4. Amb Morgenthau was the first to expose these atrocities a century ago. Bibi never liked Turkey. Many of us remember him as a phil-Hellene when he was in New York. Bibi’s Herzl Institute wants to break Turkey up. Bibi always said that the Arab armies were always led by Turks. Turkey has been a German client state for two centuries. Both Moeltkes trained with the Ottomans. Dadrian shows the Turks threatened Israelis with the same fate as the Armenians. The “Palestinians” were never allowed to resettle normally, but were piled up at the border, kept poor and told their only goal in life was to take Israel. Their controller keep putting them at risk so they continue to stay poor and angry.

  5. Veras…defending Bibi , is like praising Bugsy Siegal, the Jewish mafia boss of the 1930’s , and part of the organized crime syndicate

    Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel (February 28, 1906 – June 20, 1947), Alias Benjamin Nentanyahue was an American mobster. Siegel was known as one of the most “infamous and feared gangsters of his day”. He became one of the first front-page celebrity gangsters.]

    He was also a driving force behind the development of the Las Vegas Strip. Siegel was not only influential within the Jewish mob but, like his friend and fellow gangster Meyer Lansky, he also held significant influence within the American Mafia and the largely Italian-Jewish National Crime Syndicate.

    Siegel and lansky .are the founding fathers of Murderers. Inc.

    Siegel, with “ Lucky”Luciano. Al Capone and Lansky formed the National Crime Syndicate, an organization of crime families that brought power to the underworld. The Commission was established for…. dividing Mafia territories and preventing future gang wars.

    Benjamin Netanyahue is simply part of an international organized Crime family and syndicate that has taken over and owns the government of Israel, and allied with organized crime families who run America, England, Turkey, and Saudi Arabia!

    They are known as Clinton, Trump, Bush , Edrogan, Blair, royal families of Saudi Arabia and England, Menendez, Rubio, Pompeo, Bolton and the entire C.I.A and Mossad hit men squad of Murderer, Inc.

  6. Siegel or Netanyahue..is simply one of the mob enforcers of the foreign policy of Regime change wars…which is nothing more than those of the “Black Hand crime families” of 1920’s and 1930’s in which these mobsters would advise legitimate Business owners that their businesses were threatened by dangerous people and enemies who could harm them and advised them that they needed to provide payments to the mob, and pledge allegiance to them…in order to protect them from their created enemies!

    If the business owner rejected their offer his business would be bombed, and then they would return to these owners ..and ask again if they would surrender their business to them!

    Hence, the bombings and destruction of the legitimate owners of the countries of Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, Iraq, libya, Syria, Somalia, Yemen, lebanon, etc etc, and demanding allegiance and their oil from Iran, Venezuela, North Korea, Russia, China, Cuba,.all enemies because they are not , like Greece, surrendering their countries and under the protection of the U.S organized crime family,..who send letters with a “Black Hand” demanding them to turn over their countries, to loot them!

    This is what Benjamin Netanyahue , or the resurrected Benjamin “Bugsy Siegel” represents…not the security of Israel, no more than Dpnald Trump ..his soul mate mafia partner..represent in waging wars for the security of America!

    lakis, view the last two episodes of Games of Thrones.. to understand him!

  7. The Palestinian issue is a tragic one but has nothing to do with turkeys denial of its genocides against Christians ever since they stepped foot in Asia Minor and till the present day. The list of why turkey is our enemy is way too long to list here, but it’s the same list all turkeys neighbors have

  8. @Gianakis

    This article isn’t about modern day politics. Its about events in the past. The academics throughly researched their claims and provide evidence of atttempted genocide of Armenians, Greeks other other Christians in Turkey so the modern Turks could keep together the oppressive Ottoman empire.

    Rather than acknowledge this great evil… you take the side of Turkish nationalist extremists that hide from the truth of their dark history.

    Your claims of being “Greek” are dubious. You constantly take the sides of people hostile towards Greeks. Given your obsession with Russia my guess is you are false flag that is paid to come here to pretend to be Greek to push your agenda. (or a really really foolish Greek that undermines Greece on virtually every isssue).

  9. Niko…you are correct the Palestinian Issue had nothing to do with Turkey’s denial of its genocide against CHRISTIANS, but has everything to to with Turkey, U.S , Israel, Saudi Arabia , and Patrick Theros personal favorites Qatar , UAE .and State Department operative “Greek” and his Israeli “Scholars”..not admitting to and held accountable for CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY AND GENOCIDE AGAINST MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIANS in the Middle East and Europe thru economic and military warfare!

    What do you call, IMPOSING economic warfare of depriving Iraq citizens of essential medical needs, food, energy, in order to take over the countries of the Middle East to starve them to death, and then have sociopaths AND degenerates like “Greek” and George Bush Jr. … lie to the American people ..and begin genocide of 677, 000 Iraqi citizens! LET ME REPEAT …677,000 iRAQI MUSLIMS AND CHRISTIAN KILLED ..IS GENOCIDE!

    When you cross the borders of a foreign country and slaughter their soldiers based on a lie, .who do you think you kill ..they are the children, mothers, fathers of families of Iraq defending their homes!

    When, you THEN KILL THE FAMILIES of these soldiers, SHOWN BY Julian Assage viividly… what do you call this! Let me repeat ,,, slaughtering 677,000 people in a foreign country .IS GENOCIDE AND REPEATED IN LIBYA, AFGANISTAN, SYRIA, YEMEN, SOMALIA, VIETNAM, YUGOSLAVIA, AND NOW THREATENING iRAN , VENEZUELA, NORTH KOREA , RUSSIA …AND EVEN AMERICA!

  10. to continue … Niko., you are a very informed and wise poster…and my point to you ..is that the Scholars are no different than the Propaganda slants of the mainstream media ..to promote Narratives designed to incite hate of the enemies of Israel and the United States!

    You see, what the Scholars left out …was that Nato Turkey has been part of the Saudi Arabia, Israeli, U.S ,and Nato allinace waging war thru out the Middle East…which is nothing more than White Surpemacist Racist degenerates …who the ” Greek ” has demonstrated in his posts!

    So when you and I admit …that we have enabled Turkey to also commit Genocide in the Middle East with our country ..because we allow ourselves to put our names on their wars of geneocide…then we can praise these…so called Scholars and degenerates like the Greek and his Ahepa Masons!

  11. Insider…am I missing something… Turkey is a Nato ally of the U.S, British,, and Saudi Arabia..who has been rewarded for their genocide of Greeks in Cyprus with all the weaponry to date to make them now the largest and most dangerous army in the Middle East!

    The U.S , unlike Russia and Iran work with Turkey to maintain large U.S. military bases and air force bases in Ankara…which includes 20 nuclear warheads stocked in Turkey, which they can use if attacked by a foreign country ..like Israel!

    Vlad and Bibi …are soul mates… and regularly meet to discuss there mutual interests with Israel !

    Surprise… to the Jewish religious extremist, their are lot of Russian Jews, in Israel and Russia ….and don”t think both PUTIN,…Godfather of the Russian Mafia… and BIBi of the Israeli Mafia franchise… do not understand this!

    By the way , I guess the people of Ireland are wishing harm to the Glory of Israel ..and the greater Israeli Project… even legislating an embargo of all goods of Israel from their illegal annexation of lands and settlement in Gaza and Palestine…and why Israel is acknowledged as an Aparthied state..which obviously you and the rest of America and Israel ..have no clue as to the attrociities and crimes against humanity ..their degenerate mobsters are perpetrating on the World !

    I would suggest you, Greek, and Robert Menendez…go with the old reliable Anti =Semitic narrative to oppress genuine debate and truth
    ..

  12. @Gianakos

    Your attacks on US congressman Robrt Menendez, the most philhellenic supporter of Greeks in the US government, who has supported on issues from Skopje to Turkish violations of our sovereign waters/airspace while other American politicians ignored our concerns,.. only further illustrate you either have no clue what you are talking about or a foreign nationalist pretending to be Greek to fool Greeks. Either way your rhetoric harms Greece. You have no credibility here

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