Our Everyday Greek: Greek you Already Know: Καλοκαίρι, εποχή, χρόνος, καλός, καιρός

In this Sunday, April 1, 2018 photo, members of the Presidential Guard take part in the changing guard in front of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Athens. (AP Photo/Thanassis Stavrakis)

You already know all the words of the phrase below, because these words exist in English too: «Το καλοκαίρι είναι μία εποχή του χρόνου με καλό καιρό.» “Summer is a season of the year with good weather.” (TO kaloKEri EEne MEEa epoHEE TOO HROnoo ME kaLO keRO.)

ΚΑΛΟΚΑΙΡΙ MEANS GOOD WEATHER

Το καλοκαίρι (TO kaloKEri) is a compound word from the adjective καλός (kaLOS) and the noun ο καιρός (O keROS). The adjective καλός occurs in such English words as calligraphy. Many languages have adopted the Greek word καιρός to indicate the right time to do something. In ancient Greek ο καιρός meant the right time and the weather as well. Το καλοκαίρι (καλός + καιρός) is the season when the weather is good. Με καλό καιρό (Me kaLO keRO) = With good weather.

Ο καλός καιρός. O kaLOS keROS. The good weather.

Ο καιρός είναι καλός. O KeROS EEne kaLOS. The weather is good.

Το καλοκαίρι ο καιρός είναι καλός. TO kaloKEri o keROS EEne kaLOS. In the summer the weather is good.

Το καλοκαίρι κάνει καλό καιρό. TO kaloKEri KAni kaLO keRO. In the summer the weather is good.

EPOCH IS ΕΠΟΧΗ

You already know the Greek word for the season. It is η εποχή. In English the word epoch means a particular period of time in the history or in a person’s life. It may also mean an historical era, as

“the Victorian epoch”. In Geology epoch means a division of time which is a subdivision of a period and is itself subdivided into ages, as “the Pliocene epoch”. In Greek η εποχή has the same meanings. We say:

Η καλύτερη εποχή μου. EE kaLEEteri epoHEE moo. The best time of my life.

Η κλασική εποχή. EE klasiKEE epoHEE. Classical age.

Το καλοκαίρι είναι μία εποχή. TO kaloKEri EEne MEEa epoHEE. Summer is a season.

Note that the Χ, χ in εποχή is not soft like the English h, but it is strong. The tongue moves towards the front upper teeth forming a channel – similar to the y (as in y-es) – through which we exhale the letter Χ, χ sound.

Ο ΧΡΟΝΟΣ IS THE YEAR

The chronology, the chronometer, the chronic, the chronicle come from the Greek word ο χρόνος, which means time and year. Του χρόνου is the genitive case, which means of the year.

«ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥ ΧΡΟΝΟΥ»

We also use the phrase «και του χρόνου» as a wish. Verbatim it means “to next year too”. That express a hope to live the same good experience next year too.

BASIC VOCABULARY

Greek word Pronunciation    Meaning

Το καλοκαίρι     TO kaloKEri      the summer

Ο καλός, -ή, -ό  O kaLOS    the good

Ο καιρός     O keROS    the weather, time

Η εποχή     EE epoHEE the era, season

Μία MEEa   one (female gram. gender)

Η καλύτερη EE kaLEEteri    the best

Η κλασική   EE klasiKEE      the classical

Ο χρόνος    O HROnos  the year

Του χρόνου TOO HROnoo   next year

Και KE  and

Και του χρόνου  KE TOO HROnoo    next year too

Κάνει    KAni     is (for the weather, does)

Είναι     EEne    is

EXERCISE

Can you say in Greek?

1.Summer is a season.

  1. Summer is a season with good weather.
  2. Summer is a season of the year.
  3. Classical era.

PRONUNCIATION KEY

i (idiom), ee (bee), e (energy), o (organism), oo (boot), y (yes), h (helium), th (theory), d (the). The capitalized syllables are accented.

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